In the present article we study the stabilization of first-order linear integro-differential hyperbolic equations. For such equations we prove that the stabilization in finite time is equivalent to the exact controllability property. The proof relies on a Fredholm transformation that maps the original system into a finite-time stable target system. The controllability assumption is used to prove the invertibility of such a transformation. Finally, using the method of moments, we show in a particular case that the controllability is reduced to the criterion of Fattorini.